We review how the causes of death and longevity statistics have changed over the centuries, and even over the last few decades. We focus on what people can do in order to prolong their lives, including exercise, diet, stress management, and a focus on accident prevention. We also examine how the mission of Life Insurance has changed over the last 10 years or so, with the addition of Accelerated Death Benefits, as well as other forms of assistance (e.g., social work) for insureds and their families dealing with terminal conditions.